Ferrante, Joan M. Katharina M. Wilson, Athens, University of Georgia Press, , p. Flum, P. Compte rendu: Jacques Berlioz, dans Romania , , , p. Harrison, A. Catherine M. Jones et Logan E. Whalen, Amsterdam, Rodopi, , p. Jackson, W. Krueger, Roberta L. Il re Giovane e Maria di Francia. Chantal A.
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- Ethical Questions and International NGOs: An exchange between Philosophers and NGOs: 23 (Library of Ethics and Applied Philosophy).
- Services BnF.
Mickel, Emmanuel J. Nagel, E. Travaux et recherches , , t. Pickens, Rupert T. Kristin L. Burr, John F. Moran et Norris J. Lacy, Jefferson et London, McFarland, , p. John Lawlor Evanston, Northwestern University, , p. Series I. Whalen, Logan E. Essays in Honor of Rupert T. Holmes, A.
Engstrom et S. Philosophisch-historische Klasse, , , p. Monica L. Wright, Norris J. Lacy et Rupert T. Pickens, Amsterdam, Rodopi Faux Titre, , , p. Jahrhundert , Berlin, Schmidt, , p. Jean Dufournet, Paris, Champion Unichamp, 46 , , p. Lettres gothiques , , p. Waters, Peterborough, Broadview Press, , p. Harley avec traduction anglaise en regard. A new edition, revised by J. The Ways of Love , trad. Traduction d' Yonec et d' Eliduc. The Lais of Marie de France , trad. Judy Shoaf, Jane, Tozer, fal publications, Faery Loves and Faery Lais , trad.
Gareth Knight, Cheltenham, Skylight Press, Traduction de Guigemar , Lanval et Yonec. Laura Ashe, London, Penguin Books, Marie de France, Poetry , trad. Dorothy Gilbert, New York, Norton, Traduction de tous les lais avec texte original en regard. Lais de Marie de France , trad. Allen, Mary V. Baader, Horst, Die Lais. Peter Rolfe Monks et D. Symposiums , , p. Dominguez Levia et S. Hubier, Dijon, Murmure, , p.agendapop.cl/wp-content/windows/hywy-como-rastrear-celular.php
Éditions en ligne de l'École des chartes (ELEC)
Bloch, Howard R. Boland, Margaret M. Bowers, John M. Burgess, Glyn S. Burgess et Robert A. Taylor, Cambridge, Brewer, , p. Laura L. Martin B. Schichtman et James P. Taylor, New York et London, Garland, , p. Faletra, M. Faust, Diane M. Ferguson, Mary H. Chantal Liaroutzos et Anne Paupert, Textuel , 49, , p. Frese, Dolores W. James J. Paxson et Cynthia A. Gravlee, Selinsgrove, Susquehanna University Press, , p. Festschrift Wolfgang Spiewok. Danielle Buschinger, Greifswald, Reineke, , p. Judith M. Bennett et Amy M. Froide, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, , p.
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Claude Lachet, Lyon, Cedic, , p. Danielle Buschinger, s. Leicester, H. Robert M. Merceron, Jacques E. D, Washington University, St. Constance H. Berman, Charles W. Tilde A. Sankovitch, Syracuse, Syracuse University Press, , p. John Lawlor, London, Arnold, , p. Trindade, W. April , Coburg, Druck der Diez'schen Hofbuchdruckerei, , p. Watts, T. Williman, J. Joseph M. Crisafulli et Siegfried A. Prologue Titre:. Ne me tenez a surquidiee si vos os faire icest present. Li lais de Gugemer ms. BnF, fr. BnF, n. Harley; Guigemar; The lay of Gugemar trad.
Ki de bone mateire traite, mult li peise si bien n'est faite. Equitan ms. Jadis suleient par pruesce, par curteisie e par noblesce….
Li bretun en firent un lai, d'Equitan, cum[ent] il fina e la dame que tant l'ama. Fresne ms. Le lai del Freisne vus dirai sulunc le cunte que jeo sai. En Bretaine jadis maneient dui chevaler, veisin esteient…. Bisclaveret ms. Roquefort ; Bisclavret. Lanval ms. L'aventure d'un autre lai, cum ele avient, vus cunterai: fait fu d'un mut gentil vassal; en bretans l'apelent Lanval….
Deus amaunz ms. Issi avint cum dit vus ai; li Bretun en firent un lai. Ywenet ms. Milun ms. Ki divers cuntes vuelt traitier, diversement deit comencier e parler si raisnablement que il seit plaisible a la gent…. Cheverefoil ms. Gautier d'Arras , Ille et Galeron. Le ysope ms. A, inc. D ; Ysopes ms. S, inc. F, inc. F, expl. W, inc. O, inc. T, inc. In , the personal effects of notorious public prosecutor, Fouquier-Tinville, fetched over francs in a sale overseen by his widow.
Swords, axes and cutlasses changed hands easily, though the inconvenient size of the prize guillotine made it harder to sell. By reconstructing the afterlives of some of the most iconic symbols of the Revolution, we can clearly see how hiding and trading radical memorabilia was a cross-class affair. When it came to light again in , the priests struggled to find any national institution willing to house the infamous piece.
Although uncertainty surrounds how it was first acquired, the cranium of Marat's murderer passed through several hands until around it served as a grim table-decoration, terrifying select dinner guests at the house of the aforementioned prankster Corbeau de Saint-Albin. However unusual these objects, the tangled itinerary of both relics nonetheless sheds light on the context in which revolutionary material circulated.
It is a strange web of connections stretching from lowly flea-markets to wealthy scholars and connoisseurs. The foremost collector of French Revolution ephemera in the nineteenth century was no friend whatsoever to the principles of It is ironic that his decision to collect such materials came in the midst of a trip in which he repeatedly lamented the devastation wrought by the Jacobins in the south.
Thus, though the market value for revolutionary items may have grown over the century, this should not be seen as an infallible marker of reviving republican ideals. The price of old regime personalities also soared. It was the historical, rather than political, valence of an object that carried the greatest weight.
A collector since , Fillon also dabbled in the distinctly un-revolutionary pursuits of Poitevin ceramics and numismatics. Having discussed why it was that individuals amassed historical artefacts, we now need to investigate how they were used. For arguably the nature of these materials helped open up new avenues in social and cultural history. By the mid-nineteenth century, personal stockpiles were contributing significantly to French historiography, and especially to the historiography of the Revolution.
For Vatel, the collectors were not simply facilitators, but collaborators in his project. However, the harmonious co-operation of collectors could not be assumed. Following a spate of high-profile forgeries and frauds, the authenticity of artefacts was always contentious. Collaboration between historians and collectors remained fraught with tension, hedged around with suspicions of ingratitude, pilfering, even confiscation by the state.
On one hand, working with different sources prompted historians to refine new techniques of looking at and handling evidence, and reshaped their interpretive assumptions. On the other hand, collectors refused to languish as unacknowledged accomplices to the historian, but took pride in being coevals in a shared scientific endeavour. The editors of the autograph review Isographie regarded their growing expertise as a worthy counterpart to the methodological rigour of the Ecole des Chartes. An alternative figure, the historian-collector, was born; and with him, came new ways of retrieving the past.
In a string of publications, a range of historian-collectors drew on their own eclectic possessions to expand the ways in which the recent past was visualized. In , Pierre Hennin, a diplomat and antiquarian, published a numismatic history of the Revolution, where the principal actors and events were resurrected through a panoramic survey of the imagery embossed on its coins. Hennin lamented the horrors of iconoclasm, which had ravaged the public collections, and regarded his work as a warning against descending into further strife and factionalism. By the Second Empire, aspects of the revolutionary mindset were frequently deduced from contemporary poems, cartoons, clothing and songs.
The most celebrated of all collectors-cum-historians of this period were undoubtedly the brothers Goncourt. Though they may have deplored Champfleury's want of taste, they too began their historical career with the study of revolutionary artefacts. Constructed out of over 15, autographs bought from the Charavay brothers, the text furnished a glittering mosaic of inventories and epigrams, panorama and analysis, knitted together through virtuoso stretches of dense, descriptive prose.
For instance, the authors allocated far more space to Palloy and his Bastille merchandise than to the fall of the fortress itself. Stripped of their finery, French ladies were depicted decked out with the latest commemorative jewellery, such as tricolour snuff-boxes, rings inset with Bastille stones and crystal earrings inscribed with constitutional slogans.
But predating these methods, and perfectly embodying the convergence between cultural history and collecting practice, was the work of Auguste Challamel. In an survey of the character types found during the Revolution, he decried the scarcity and transience of revolutionary culture.
Himself a collector of songs and music from the Revolution, he was highly sensitive to how objects, texts and tunes could be modified and appropriated by successive regimes. He owned the score of a patriotic hymn composed by Gossec, which under the Restoration had been converted into a religious motet. For him, such transformations in the life of an artwork or an image offered vital clues to transformations in popular mentality.
Evidence of these contested symbols could still be seen scratched into the walls and doorways of the French capital. A turning-point in young Challamel's career came when he entered a basement on the rue des Boulangers, in the wretched Faubourg Saint-Manceau. The acknowledged doyen of Parisian collectors, Feuillet de Conches, was staggered by the abundance of objects gathered together. Challamel was not the only historian to be bowled over by Maurin's grotto. Skilfully cultivating relationships with relatives and descendants, he bought from Marat's sister many items belonging to her martyred brother.
Book a book
Challamel's response to this sans-culotte storehouse was, however, unique. Here, Maurin's collection was treated not simply as an auxiliary to research but a meaningful locus of study itself. It offered both raw materials, but also a guiding itinerary through the cultural history of the republic. Hence he also drew on the manuscripts and objects preserved by the collectors Villenave, Hennin and Deschiens. He hoped that orientation towards tangible, concrete evidence would help liberate history from factional polarities. He interrogated the conversations of the salons and the broadsides of the clubs, the iconography of the festivals and the renaming of civic space.
Thanks to his alliance with collectors, Challamel thus investigated a body of sources largely absent from the grandiose narratives of his more illustrious contemporaries. If the Revolution caused the disruption and dispersal of countless objects, it also acted as a catalyst for novel methods of recovery, in both physical and textual forms. Why has the role of material culture in the transmission of the Revolutionary heritage been obscured?
Collecting certainly did not fade away in the later decades of the nineteenth century—in fact, stockpiling Revolutionary remnants became established as an impeccably polite and respectable pastime. For if the amateur scene flourished, governments remained suscipicious of subversive items. Moreover, the professionalization of the historical discipline from the s onwards encouraged the depreciation of material culture in favour of texts, documents and archives. For the new generation of positivist historians, who equated the centralizing state with disciplinary rigour, scattered private collections formed obstacles to the historical craft.
Rather than retreating into idiosyncracy and aestheticism, many collectors believed they had important public duties to perform in shaping understandings of the past. The fruitful interpenetration between historians and collectors found earlier in the century requires further exploration. Among the legacies of the Revolution, then, should be counted the new opportunities for collecting and thinking about the bric-a-brac of history.
On the level of political culture, relocating and restoring these wandering objects to their rightful owners, or finding them appropriate new shrines, became symbolic issues of national pride. In this, we need to consider not only what was conserved but also how it was deployed. For the exciting recent publications on eighteenth-century chansons, costumes and restaurants reveal a striking affinity with the research interests of these forgotten nineteenth-century amateurs.
The Revolution had shattered the solid chronicle of Bourbon France into a thousand fragments, and out of the rubble early cultural historians unearthed new sources, new tools and new habits of thought. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In.
Advanced Search. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents. The bric-a-brac of the old regime: collecting and cultural history in post-revolutionary france Tom Stammers. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Abstract The French Revolution unleashed an earthquake not just in the world of governance and ideas but also in the world of things. In the course of writing this paper, the author is very grateful for advice from Larry Klein, Peter Mandler, Malcolm Crook and Julian Wright as well as the two anonymous peer reviewers.
Furet, Interpreting the French Revolution , trans. Forster Cambridge, , pp. See F. Furet, M. Ozouf, trans. Goldhammer Cambridge, MA, ; L. For diverse approaches, see S. Tribe Cambridge, MA, ; R. See C. Citron, Le mythe national: l'histoire de France en question Paris, ; D.
Choay, The Invention of the Historical Monument , trans.
Marie de France
O'Connell Cambridge, ; P. On the various attempts of historians to rewrite the revolution over the nineteenth century, see C. Pomian, Collectors and Curiosities: Paris and Venice , trans. Wiles-Portier Cambridge, MA, , p. For the connections between literature and private collections in this period, see J. See J.
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Elsner and R. For moves in this direction, see F. Kinnes and G. Vardnell London, Villenave, homme de lettres Paris, Delort, Mes voyages aux environs de Paris , 2 vols Paris, , i. Challamel and W. Fontaine, Manuel de l'amateur des autographes Paris, , p. Ledru's grave-robbing formed the basis of a fantastic tale in A. Wagner Geneva, , ch. For contemporary literature on the development of collecting, see J. See M. Texier, Tableau de Paris , 2 vols Paris, — , ii. Eudel Paris, , p. Exposed in , his case generated much polemic and sharply divided the intellectual world.
Bordier, F. Bouquelot, L. See T. Pomerans Princeton, NJ, , p. See V.
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